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Cargo work safety - Self-unloaders procedure
Self unloading bulk carriers uses horizontal and vertical conveyor systems to discharge bulk cargoes. Originally developed to allow ships to handle cargoes at ports not equipped with their own gear, they are also used to reduce handling costs by minimising the need for stevedores.
Preventing/Dealing with Spillages and Overloads:
It is absolutely essential to avoid any spillage, and belt overload by taking the following measurements and precautions:-
- Correct training and belt tensioning.
- Adjustment of scrapers.
- Proper control of cargo flow onto the belt.
- Maintaining proper hydraulic line pressures on the gates.
- Careful monitoring of the belt load meter settings in the CCR when operating at maximum capacity.
- Frequent inspection of the system to identify any malfunction.
- Maintaining a shore hopper/boom watch to prevent overloading the shore system.
CAUTION: WHEN REMOVING SPILLAGES CLEAR OF THE BELT THE SYSTEM EMERGENCY STOPS MUST BE ACTIVATED AND TEH BACKSTOPS ENGAGED ANDC HECKED. THE OPERATION MUST BE CONTINOUSLY SUPERVISED BY A COMPETENT PERSON. ENSURE THAT THE LIFT BELT BACKSTOPS ARE ENGAGED BEFORE CARRYING OUT ANY WORK IN THE VICINITY OF THE LIFT BELT AND ITS PULLEY/WHEELS ETC.
Cargo on the Return Belt
When spillage occurs or pieces of cargo bounce off the carrying side of the hold conveyor belt and falls onto its return side, this cargo will get in between the carriage components and cause damage to them. Proper control of the cargo flow onto the belt and good belt tracking will prevent this occurrence. If spillage occurs, the hold conveyor must be stopped, using the pull chord to clear the spill.
Fig: self unloader alongside terminal
Max Dimension of Cargo per C/P
The C/P states that the maximum size of a stone/rock/piece of cargo, which is allowable is 10 cm in any direction. Oversized cargo may cause damage to the belt cover, or get stuck in the system causing further damage. If oversized pieces are noted, samples must be kept aside, and a protest issued to the Shippers. The relevant Ship Management Office and Owners must be informed immediately.
Danger in the Loop Area:
No unauthorised persons are allowed in the Loop area and the CCR must be informed prior to entry. Crew entering this area must wear protective clothing and exercise caution, as there is danger of falling cargo, which may have slipped through the loop belt, or fallen off the elevator belt. The Chief Engineer can restrict entry as necessary.
Loop Water Sprinkler
A water-sprinkler arrangement is provided to protect the Loop House. It is not an automatic arrangement, and must be turned on immediately in the event of a fire. The water output from this sprinkler may prove inadequate and is basically to cover the period until fire hoses are ready. The water sprinkler arrangement must be tested regularly to ensure that the nozzles are not blocked.
ND Ultrasonic Testing of the Boom
Regular and thorough visual checks of the Boom structure are to be carried out. If excessive deflection or fractured welding is sighted, then the Boom structure must be subjected to dye penetrant testing of all suspect welding. Evidence of cracking of any welding etc is to be followed by an Ultrasonic examination of the entire Boom Structure by an accredited Company.
Entry Procedure to clear Hang-Ups
- A FULL RISK ASSESSMENT IS TO BE COMPLETED
- The Master must obtain authorisation from the office.
- All personnel must be informed and signs posted.
- Communication must be established, and tested.
- The relevant checklists must be completed.
- Continuous supervision of all persons must be maintained by the Chief Officer
- The hatch covers must be opened in order that all persons in the hold are clearly visible.
- During Entry, a continuous watch on all persons in the hold must be maintained by the Chief Officer or Deck Officer. keeping the Emergency-Stop control at hand.
- The Emergency stops are to be manned
- Close and isolate all gates.
- Maintain a close watch out for slide, and cave-ins of the cargo.
- Use a loudhailer.
- The condition of hold ladders must be checked regularly, and repaired as required.
- A safety station in the hold must be designated.
- Use safety walk-boards across hog-backs.
- Use short sliding ladders on the saddle-back for an easy cross over to the other side.
- Designate a support team ,to provide and lift-up apparatus.
Cement carrier KEDAH CEMENT II
According to The Motor Ship May 1996 )
The self-loading/discharging cement carrier KEDAH CEMENT II was built by Pan-United Shipyard, Singapore. The ship has four holds, each centrally divided by a longitudinal bulkhead. The cement-handling plant has been supplied by the German Company IBAU and is designed to handle two different grades of Portland cement, based on a specific gravity of airless cement of 1.1/1.4t/m3. There is a central loading station located amidships on the main deck with four fluidslides. Cement is loaded at a rate of about 1000 t/h, using air slides and gravity. High-pressure fans supply fluidisation air to the loading slides and distributors. Four electrically-driven piston blowers supply the aeration of the cargo holds.
Discharge of the cargo is from the bottom of the sloping holds through cement pumps onto a conveyor belt. The cargo hold bottoms are sloped 7° athwartships and 11° in the fore and aft direction. Each of the four electrically-driven cargo pumps has a capacity of 200t.
Again, fluidisation of the cargo is necessary during discharge, especially since the cargo tends to settle and consolidate during transit. In this case, it is achieved by fluidisation air channels in the holds, which move the cargo towards the flow gate. The rate of discharge from each hold is controlled by the flow gate connected to the cargo pumps. The total distance covered by the conveyor belt is about 590m. This includes lifting the cargo up to 50m and eight 90deg bends are included in the belt run. Discharge at the ship side is through four cargo hoses, stowed on the main deck, when not in use and handled by a MacGregor-Haglund 15t crane. Propulsion is by twin engines with a total output of 5279kW to give a service speed of 13.5knots.
The engines drive through a double input/single output gearbox driving a 4-bladed 4.7m diameter CP propeller with a gear ratio of 1:4.2 to give a propeller speed of 135rpm. The gearbox is also equipped with two A van Kaick PTO rated at 2160kW each. To aid manoeuvrability the ship is fitted with a 640kW Wärtsilä Lips CP bow thruster rated at 10t.
Length, oa: 145.0m, Length, bp: 136.1m, Beam, mld: 22.0m, Depth, mld to the main deck: 12.20m, Draught design/scantling: 9.0/9.50m, Deadweight design/scantling: 16,000/17,300dwt, Cargo capacity: 3600m3, Output: 2x2650kW, Speed: 13.5 knots.
Fire in cargo holds & emergency preparedness
Shipboard hazards & bulk carriers safety guideline
Health hazards for personnel working in a dusty condition onboard
Safe working practice onboard self unloading bulk carriers
Our detail pages illustrated many safety aspects of Bulk carrier
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Self unloader components
Function of loop & bucket belt elevators
Various type boom conveyor belts - How the belt sytem practically works ?
Dealing with self unloaders stalled lift belt
Conveyor belt construction & troubleshoot guide
Conveyor belt installation guide
Conveyor belt repair & maintenence guide
Safe working practice onboard self unloading bulk carriers
Preventing conveyor belt fire onboard self unloading bulk carriers
Cargo work safety precautions
Various bulk cargoes - free flow ability
Various bulk cargoes & dealing with cargo hang ups
Navigation in Ice & safety precautions
Dust suppression procedure & environment protection
Preparations for cargo planning, handling & stowage
Maintaining safe stability onboard self-unloading bulk carriers
Procedure for bulk cargo handling prior to and during loading
Loading operations - voyage orders, draft restrictions, various grades and rates
Loading sequence and other related considerations
Preparations for discharging & related guideline
Safety precautions for boom operation
Directing gate operation, gate problems & crew duties
Cargo holds/ tunnels cleaning, maintenance and check items
Procedure for transporting coal on self- unloading bulk carriers
Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
It is vital to reduce the likelihood of over-stressing the ship's structure and also complying with all essential safety measures for a safe passage at sea. Our detail pages contain various bulk carrier related topics that might be useful for people working on board and those who working ashore in the terminal. For any remarks please Contact us
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