Fig:BULK CARRIER AMERICAN MARINER UNDERWAY
If any loss of stability becomes evident during loading or discharging, all cargo, ballast and bunker
operations must be stopped and a plan prepared to restore positive stability. If the vessel is at a
terminal this plan must be agreed with the terminal representative, and with respect to grain loading
plant, the hoses are to be disconnected.
The Chief Officer must ensure that the loading or discharging sequence is such that the vesselís
stability is never compromised and that permitted stress limits are never exceeded.
The Master must check and approve all calculations for bending, stress and stability moments of the
The most critical times are during loading and discharging, during which the bending and stress limits
must be carefully monitored. Care must also be exercised, to ensure that the shore installation
personnel are adhering to the predetermined loading, or discharging programme.
Caution must also be exercised when loading and discharging, in a way which requires any
compartment to remain empty for any stage of the voyage, such as multiple port loading/discharging or
carriage of heavy cargoes which require one or more of the vesselís holds to be empty.
Stress monitoring system
Some vessels may be fitted with strain/stress gauges, which will automatically alarm at pre-set levels.
Whilst this equipment provides valuable information it is essential that an accurate cargo/ballast plan is
calculated and that stresses will remain within acceptable limits. The vessel must not be
loaded/discharged purely on the strain/stress gauges.
If during cargo/ballast operations the stress alarm sounds, all operations must stop until the situation is
Ballasting and deballasting operations
- Ensure that all ballast tank air-vents are open.
- Sound tank frequently during ballast operations.
- Re-check the soundings after closing the tank and overboard valves as accidental re-filling
of tank which was deballasted may occur.
Ballasting and deballasting operations must be carried out under the supervision of the Duty Officer,
and are to proceed as per the ballast programme predetermined by the Chief Officer. When there is no
ballast console provided in the Cargo Control Room, the Duty Engineer is to control the ballasting
operation from the Engine Room. When a ballast console is provided by the Cargo Control Room, the
Duty Engineer is to assist in setting the ballast lines, and assisting generally as requested by the Duty
Officer. If any problem is encountered which upsets the (de) ballast programme, the Master and Chief
Engineer must be informed.
When compiling the ballast programme, the Chief Officer is to take the following into account:
- Draft of the vessel, and the available depth of water.
- Stresses and bending moments likely to be experienced by the vessel during the operation, and to
comply with the builders recommended limits.
- Trim of the vessel. If deballasting, the vessel must have enough stern trim to facilitate good
suction and efficient stripping. Trim must not be excessive such that it may adversely effect
the cargo operations, or place abnormal stress on the conveyor system, especially the Boom or
the hatch cover operating equipment. It must also be noted that when discharging, as any trim
by the head will place undue stress on the conveyor system. An excessive trim by the stern may
cause the belts to mis-train/track; and also cause stress to the Booms slewing mechanism.
- Listing during any SUL operations must always be prevented and a list of up to 1 degree on either
side, are the maximum tolerable limits.
- Rate of Loading or discharging the cargo.
- Ships stability.
The Duty Officer is to closely monitor the operation, and keep in close communication with the Duty
Engineer, ensuring that all is going according to the predetermined programme. Any abnormalities are
to be reported immediately to the Chief Officer. Soundings are to be taken on commencement of
pumping a tank, in or out, to ensure that the correct valves have been opened and the correct tank is
being pumped. Soundings are also to be taken at regular intervals throughout the operation, to ensure
that all is proceeding at the correct rate, and that ample warning is obtained before the need to cease
operation or change tanks.
All ballast tank vent/air pipes must be opened and verified before any ballasting / deballasting
Filling of double bottom tanks, hopper-side tanks, or wing tanks, is when possible to by gravitating,
to avoid overflow and stress. When topping up a sounding must be taken and the pump stopped,
before the water level reaches a maximum.
It must be noted that overflow of ballast may cause wetting damage to the cargo, the shore
installation, electrical cables etc. Care must also be taken when discharging into barges as overflowing
water can flood them.
When dumping from topside tanks using overboard dump-valves, care must be taken not to dump onto
shore installations, barges etc with resultant damage and claims. Also, these types of dump valves
must be closed after dumping, in order that water does not re-enter the tanks as the loading proceeds.
Defective ballast tank valves must be immediately dealt with and repaired.
All remote operating valves
must be operating from the remote position, and the markings of full Ďopení and full Ďshutí established.
The reliance on remote controls of valves must be verified, as a valve could remain partially open, even
if the indicator is in the fully shut position.
Our detail pages illustrated many safety aspects of Bulk carrier
Home page |||Bulk carrier types
Handling of bulk coal |||Cargo planning
Carriage of grain
|||Risk of iron ores
|||Self unloading bulk carriers
|||Care of cargo & vessel
|||Cargoes that may liquefy
|||Suitability of ships
|||Ballast handling procedure
|||Bulk carrier safety
|||Fire fighting systems
|||Bulk carrier General arrangement
- Bulk carriers damage stability rules and guidelines
- Checklist for confirming stabilty and hull stress prior loading
Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
- Self unloader components
Function of loop & bucket belt elevators
Self unloaders various cargo handling gears
- Various type boom conveyor belts - How the belt sytem practically works ?
Dealing with self unloaders stalled lift belt
Conveyor belt construction & troubleshoot guide
Conveyor belt installation guide
Conveyor belt repair & maintenence guide
Safe working practice onboard self unloading bulk carriers
- Preventing conveyor belt fire onboard self unloading bulk carriers
- Cargo work safety precautions
- Various bulk cargoes - free flow ability
- Various bulk cargoes & dealing with cargo hang ups
- Navigation in
Ice & safety precautions
- Dust suppression procedure & environment protection
- Preparations for cargo planning, handling & stowage
- Procedure for bulk cargo handling prior to and during loading
- Loading operations - voyage orders, draft restrictions, various grades and rates
- Loading sequence and other related considerations
- Preparations for discharging & related guideline
- Self unloaders discharging operation
- Safety precautions for boom operation
- Directing gate operation, gate problems & crew duties
- Cargo holds/ tunnels cleaning, maintenance and check items
- Procedure for transporting coal on self- unloading bulk carriers
It is vital to reduce the likelihood of over-stressing the ship's structure and also complying with all essential safety measures for a safe passage at sea. Our detail pages contain various bulk carrier related topics that might be useful for people working on board and those who working ashore in the terminal. For any remarks please
Copyright © 2010 www.bulkcarrierguide.com All rights reserved.