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Navigation in Ice and safety precautions - Self-unloaders procedure

The onset of Ice Accretion can be sudden and dangerous. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the transit of a cold frontal system in winter, will rapidly bring down the air-temperature, causing the vessels steel structure to cool. The driving sea spray then adheres to the ships structure, and forms ice which builds up rapidly.

The consequences are:




If there is ice formation on the sea surface, this usually restricts the sea spray, however, ice accretion is still possible where there is high air moisture content. Ice formation of the sea surface severely restricts navigation and the vessel may become ice-bound. Forcing the ship through ice can cause damage to the hull, shipside intake grids and may damage the propeller, if attempts are made to go astern. The cooling water intakes may also become frozen, and the decision to enter an ice bound area has therefore to be carefully considered.

SELF UNLOADER BURNS HARBOR DURING ICY CONDITIONS
Fig:SELF UNLOADER BURNS HARBOR DURING ICY CONDITIONS
The boundaries of ice, the predicted shift of these boundaries, the type of ice formed e.g. grey ice, pack ice etc are transmitted in bulletins. It must be remembered that the ice boundaries can have moved since the last bulletin, and the proposed routes may be affected. The assistance of an Ice Breaker could also be required, and the vessel may have to join an ice convoy. The Master must engage an Ice Pilot for the area if available.


Preparations for Ice:

  1. Take additional bunkers as an allowance for manoeuvring in heavy weather and deviations due to ice and ice accretion.
  2. Maintain a large stock of de-icing salt on board.
  3. Remember that the ice accretion is possible in cold driving winds.
  4. Change to low sea suctions, and provide temporary steam pipes at the intakes, if permanent de-icing connections are not provided.
  5. Cover the mooring lines, cable drums etc with plastic covers and secure.
  6. Cover all exposed motors and control stands.
  7. In exceptional circumstances, and subject to the vessels stability, due consideration must be given to lowering the ballast tank levels, if there is a risk of the ballast freezing.
  8. Check the ballast air-pipes for clogging with ice, prior to any ballasting or de-ballasting.
  9. If ice accretion is rapid, then maintain steerage away from the spray.
  10. Keep both anchor shanks slightly out of the hawse-pipe, so that ice formed inside the hawse-pipe holding the anchors can be broken by heaving the anchor.
  11. Cover the spurling pipes.
  12. Cover the fairlead openings by canvas and wooden templates.
  13. Keep crowbars and ice-picks ready for use.
  14. The Crew are to be clothed according to the recommendations made in NP 100 against the wind chill diagram.
  15. The radar scanners are to be kept on ‘stand by’ if not in use.
  16. Keep the bow thruster heater ‘on’ for about three 3 hours before arrival, and turn them slowly every hour to ensure that the oil is warm.
  17. Check electrical insulation.
  18. Drain the fire lines, grease their expansion joints.
  19. Spread de-icing salt on decks.
  20. Cover the boom belt with canvas so that the rollers are not affected by ice accretion.
  21. Lower a length of manila rope in the scuppers.
  22. The heating coils of the emergency generator are to be on and, the tank maintained at 90% full to avoid condensation.
  23. With regard to the engine cooling system the manufacturer’s instructions are to be adhered to, and the cooling system must be fitted with a solution of water and antifreeze at the recommended ratio to provide protection down to at least, minus 40oC.
  24. Maintain the outside air-circulation into the engine room at the minimum required. Keep all WT doors to all spaces and all other accommodation doors closed.
  25. Ensure that the Fore Peak tank manually operated valves are closed, and also that all tank manholes are closed.
  26. Turn on the accommodation heating, and ensure that the sanitary and domestic water flow is satisfactory.






Related information

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  3. Self unloaders various cargo handling gears

  4. Various type boom conveyor belts - How the belt sytem practically works ?

  5. Dealing with self unloaders stalled lift belt

  6. Conveyor belt construction & troubleshoot guide

  7. Conveyor belt installation guide

  8. Conveyor belt repair & maintenence guide

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  10. Preventing conveyor belt fire onboard self unloading bulk carriers

  11. Cargo work safety precautions

  12. Various bulk cargoes - free flow ability

  13. Various bulk cargoes & dealing with cargo hang ups

  14. Dust suppression procedure & environment protection

  15. Preparations for cargo planning, handling & stowage

  16. Maintaining safe stability onboard self-unloading bulk carriers

  17. Procedure for bulk cargo handling prior to and during loading

  18. Loading operations - voyage orders, draft restrictions, various grades and rates

  19. Loading sequence and other related considerations

  20. Preparations for discharging & related guideline

  21. Self unloaders discharging operation

  22. Safety precautions for boom operation

  23. Directing gate operation, gate problems & crew duties

  24. Cargo holds/ tunnels cleaning, maintenance and check items

  25. Procedure for transporting coal on self- unloading bulk carriers





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Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
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