Home ||| Bulk Cargo ||| Planning ||| Care ||| Safety||| Self unloaders
Anthracite coal & Bituminous coal - Handling various grade coal
Anthracite coal is also known as hard or stone coal. It has a low ash content with low volatility and a high BTU (British Thermal Unit) content.
Remove all solid residues in the hold, sweep clean and flush with seawater. Cargo residues should not be allowed to accumulate, otherwise hold bulkhead staining may result. If the same cargo is carried continually, consideration should be given to hold cleaning after every fifth consecutive cargo.
- bilge well strainers and bilge well lids must have clear drain holes, be clean and free of debris
- all valves in the drain/bilge system must be checked and confirmed as operational. There have been claims where the valves have allowed water to flow into the holds via the bilge line system. Coal residues can prevent the valves from operating fully
- the bilge wells must be protected using good-quality hessian firmly in place so as to allow water to drain
Fig: bulk terminal grab-operation
- remove all solid residues and sweep clean
- coal dust should be dry-cleaned using brushes, removing the majority of cargo residues from the tank top and bulkheads
- the crew or stevedores should follow up in the cargo holds when the discharge is almost completed. Cargo residues should be collected and put into the grabs for landing
- cargo hold bulkheads, hatch cover undersides and hatch coamings should be cleaned by compressed air, and covers should be swept
- after removing all solid residues, sweep clean and flush with seawater using high-pressure hoses
Bituminous coal, also known as soft coal, is usually black, although dark brown grades are found. It exhibits a relatively high level of plasticity, volatility and low ash content, making it ideal for coking. The hold cleaning procedure is similar to that for anthracite coal except that cargo residues should not be allowed to accumulate, and high-pressure hose cleaning is recommended after every second consecutive cargo, unless the ship is on a long-term charter.
Bituminous coal cargoes can result in hold staining. The holds may require additional cleaning, even with light chemicals, when some cargoes are to be loaded after bituminous coal, such as grains and fertilisers. The use of a prewash to protect the paintwork in the hold could be considered if the subsequent cargo to be loaded is of a sensitive nature, such as grain or fertilisers. Chemical splash suits, chemical gloves, boots, helmet with visor and safety goggles must be worn when cleaning. Check the Material Safety Data Sheet as issued by the producer.
Coal slurry are IMSBC Group A cargo. A mixture of fine coal particles and water which is liable to liquefy. Bilge wells to be covered to prevent ingress of the cargo. See IMSBC Code for detailed requirements for shipping. May emit methane and cargo spaces should be tested regularly with natural ventilation carried out as necessary. During the voyage the surface appearance of the cargo should be checked regularly and any signs of liquefaction should be acted upon immediately.
Grab discharge of coal onto a conveyor
Coal handling safety guideline
Coal - IMSBC Group B (and A). A natural solid combustible material that may create a flammable (and explosive) atmosphere, may heat spontaneously, may cause oxygen depletion and may corrode steelwork. Certain coal cargoes may also be liable to liquefaction Coal may emit methane which can be ignited by a spark (electrical or friction), naked flame, match or cigarette. Methane is lighter than air and is liable to accumulate in the upper reaches of cargo holds and adjacent spaces which might not be gastight.
Coal from some areas of the world, particularly some parts of Indonesia, has been found to be prone to self-heating. The IMSBC Code states that coal should not be loaded if its temperature is above 55°C as self-heating can accelerate rapidly. Self-heating does not usually take place throughout a cargo but in hot spots where there are suitable conditions.
Coal stock-piled in the open is more susceptible to self-heating as exposure to rain and wind assists oxidation. This has been found to be a particular problem with coal loaded from barges in Indonesia although the IMSBC Code now addresses this problem by requiring shippers to protect cargo on barges from precipitation and water ingress. Additionally, it is well worth obtaining advice from the P & I Club, particularly with regard to having access to the cargo for inspection prior to loading.
Vessels shipping coal should at all times carry on board instruments for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide gas concentrations, so that the atmosphere within the cargo space can be monitored. The instrument should be regularly serviced and calibrated so that it can provide the crewmembers with reliable data about the atmosphere within the cargo space. Care needs to be exercised in interpreting methane measurements carried out in the low oxygen concentrations often found in unventilated cargo holds.
Read more on
Special precaution & IMSBC code guideline for handling bulk coal
Various grade coal -Anthracite coal & Bituminous coal Handling guides
Coal loading and related safety considerations
Hazards of handling copper concentrate
Hazards of handling bulk sulphur
Special arrangements for carrying grain cargo
Grain handling precautions - various limitations
Preparations, loading, carrying & discharging bulk cement
Safety precautions for loading and carriage of iron ores
Risk of carrying high density iron ores in bulk
Salt loading guideline - Precautions & hold preparation
Pig iron preparations for bulk loading
Risk of iron ore liquefaction during sea passage & countermeasures
Petcoke loading in bulk & associated problems for bulk carriers
Handling of bauxite - The environmental impact of Jamaica bauxite mining
Carrying gypsum -Toxins, physical reactions & environmental degradation
Cargo liquefaction & potential problem for transporting bulk cargo
- Cargo information required by ship master prior handling bulk cargo
- Care of cargo during loading- Trimming pours
- Checklist for confirming stabilty and hull stress prior loading
- Cargo loading agreement between ship and terminal
- Bulk carrier loading manual
- Handling of deballasting (ship duties) during high loading rate
- Cargo and ballast handling guide
- Responsibility of ship during cargo operation
- Shipboard hazards & bulk carriers safety guideline
- Asymmetric cargo and ballast distribution for bulk carriers
- Limitations on exceeding load lines
- Risk of deviation from the loading limitations
Cargo handling guidance for deck officers
Our detail pages illustrated many safety aspects of Bulk carrier
Home page |||Bulk carrier types ||| Handling of bulk coal |||Cargo planning ||| Carriage of grain |||Risk of iron ores |||Self unloading bulk carriers |||Care of cargo & vessel |||Cargoes that may liquefy |||Suitability of ships |||Terminal guideline |||Hold cleaning |||Cargo cranes |||Ballast handling procedure |||Bulk carrier safety |||Fire fighting systems |||Bulk carrier General arrangement
Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
It is vital to reduce the likelihood of over-stressing the ship's structure and also complying with all essential safety measures for a safe passage at sea. Our detail pages contain various bulk carrier related topics that might be useful for people working on board and those who working ashore in the terminal. For any remarks please Contact us
Copyright © 2010 bulkcarrierguide.com All rights reserved.