Contaminants are defined individually in these Standards and consist of the following:
Contaminants may be referred to as foreign material, being all material other than whole or broken seeds or hulls of the wheat being assessed.
Defective grains refer to wheat that has been damaged to some degree, as outlined in these Standards. They include the following:
Fig: Bulk grain loading
The ship should be kept upright during loading of this cargo. This cargo shall be so trimmed to the boundaries of the cargo space that the angle of the surface of the cargo with horizontal plane does not exceed 25 deg. This cargo shall be kept as dry as practicable. This cargo shall not be handled during precipitation. During handling of this cargo, all non working hatches of the cargo spaces into which the cargo is loaded or to be loaded shall be closed
Trimming of Bulk Grain
Under Part A of the IGC "All necessary and reasonable trimming shall be performed to level all free grain surfaces and to minimise the effect of grain shifting" and "In any filled compartment, trimmed, the bulk grain shall be trimmed so as to fill all spaces under the decks and hatch covers to the maximum extent possible."
However, in any filled untrimmed compartment the hatch opening shall be filled with bulk grain to the maximum extent possible but lie at its natural angle of repose outside the periphery of the hatch opening. This is subject to the administration issuing the document of authorisation (as specified in the IGC) granting a dispensation from trimming, or the compartment being specially suitable (as defined in the IGC) and a dispensation being granted from trimming the ends of that compartment. This allows the hatch opening to effectively be used as a feeder to the unfilled ends. However, should neither of the above conditions be met, trimming into the ends of the hold will be required. Similarly, if calculations show that the stability with such loading will be insufficient for the proposed voyage, then trimming into the ends of the hold will be required.
Part B of the IGC provides general assumptions in respect of stability calculations for untrimmed compartments and assumed volumetric heeling moments of a filled compartment (trimmed and untrimmed) together with similar assumptions for trunks and a partly filled compartment.
If trimming into the ends is required it may be possible to utilise spout extensions or scoops to achieve the filling of the ends without machine trimming but this will depend on the particular design and capability of the grain elevator. However, most modern bulk carriers are deemed specially suitable and trimming is not required.
To meet charter party provisions regarding cargo quantity and trim it may be necessary to leave one hold (or more) slack which will obviously have an adverse effect on the ship's stability. Should calculations show that the stability of the ship is consequently not sufficient, it will be necessary to secure the free surface of the grain. The approved methods of securing are specified in the IGC to which reference should be made for the most appropriate in a particular situation.
Grains may settle by up to five or six percent while on passage. While this could have an adverse effect on the stability, it should not be a problem as long as the cargo is trimmed properly or, alternatively, the hatch opening is completely filled as described above.
As an objective of the IGC is to ensure that there is no empty space at the top of a grain cargo, it is apparent that surface ventilation is either difficult or impossible. Thus, the advice of one of the major P&I clubs is that any attempt at ventilation of a grain cargo is likely to be ineffective and it is acceptable for it to be left unventilated.
While bagged grain may still be carried in a general cargo ship, it is not unknown for a bulk carrier to be loaded with cargo that arrives on board in bags that are then cut open and bled into the holds. This is an operation that is not only slow but may lead to other problems including debris in the cargo (e.g. sacking material, stones, pieces of wood) and claims for short delivery. The latter may arise through the weight of cargo loaded being calculated by deducting the weight of empty bags from the weighbridge weight of full bags arriving for shipment. Additionally, the removal of debris from the cargo will also affect the final weight of cargo shipped.
Appropriate precautions should be taken to protect machinery and accommodation spaces from the dust of the cargo. Bilge wells of the cargo spaces shall be protected from ingress of the cargo. Person who may be exposed the dust of the cargo shall wear protective clothing, goggles or other equivalent dust eye protection and dust filter masks, as necessary. Bilge wells shall be clean. Dry and covered as appropriate, to prevent ingress of the cargo.
After completion of loading of this cargo, the hatches of the cargo spaces shall be sealed as necessary. All vents and access ways to the cargo spaces shall shut during the voyage. Bilges in the cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall not be pumped unless special precautions are taken.
Grain can germinate during a voyage so it is essential that the cargo is loaded in a completely dry condition. It follows that grain must not be loaded and holds should be covered during periods of precipitation.
In the case that the residues of this cargo are to be washed out, the cargo spaces and the other structures and equipment which may have been in contact with this cargo or its dust shall be thoroughly swept prior to washing out. Particular attention shall be paid to bilge wells and framework in the cargo spaces. The fixed bilge pumps shall not be used to pump the cargo spaces, because this cargo may make the bilge system inoperative.
Risk of claims
There is a strong risk of spurious cargo claims being made on grain cargoes in Iraq. During the discharge of an Argentinean wheat cargo at Umm Qasr, the Iraqi receivers claimed that cargo in one hold was contaminated with e-coli bacteria. The cargo was analyzed three times by a local health authority laboratory and on each occasion the tests were positive. The Member had a cargo sample analyzed by Solomon and Seaber in the UK and the result was negative.
Grain handling more guidelines
Hazards and safety precautions for grain cargo
Grain loading preparation
Presence of contaminants & handling other defective grain
Grain terminology from IMO grain code
What is international grain code and why it is used in bulk carriers ?
Hazards of handling copper concentrate
Hazards of handling bulk sulphur
Loading, carrying and discharging of bulk coal
Special precaution & IMSBC code guideline for handling bulk coal
Special arrangements for carrying grain cargo
Safety precautions for loading and carriage of iron ores
Risk of carrying high density iron ores in bulk
Salt loading guideline - Precautions & hold preparation
Pig iron preparations for bulk loading
Procedure for fishmeal loading in bulk
Risk of iron ore liquefaction during sea passage & countermeasures
Petcoke loading in bulk & associated problems for bulk carriers
Handling of bauxite - The environmental impact of Jamaica bauxite mining
Carrying gypsum -Toxins, physical reactions & environmental degradation
Cargo liquefaction & potential problem for transporting bulk cargo
- Bulk carrier types - Ore carriers, OBO ships, forest product carrier , self unloader and more
- Care of cargo during loading- Trimming pours
- Checklist for confirming stabilty and hull stress prior loading
- Cargo loading agreement between ship and terminal
- Bulk carrier loading manual
- Handling of deballasting (ship duties) during high loading rate
- Cargo and ballast handling guide
- Responsibility of ship during cargo operation
- Shipboard hazards & bulk carriers safety guideline
- Asymmetric cargo and ballast distribution for bulk carriers
- Limitations on exceeding load lines
- Risk of deviation from the loading limitations
- Cargo handling guidance for deck officers
Ventilation requirement for bulk cargo loaded
- Preparation for ships carrying bulk cargo & standard loading condition
- Monitoring cargo operation safety checks in a bulk terminal
- How to avoid cargo damage by applying proper ventilation methods
- Measures against liquefaction of bulk cargo
- How to plan cargo discharge in a safe manner ?
Our detail pages illustrated many safety aspects of Bulk carrier
Home page |||Bulk carrier types ||| Handling of bulk coal |||Cargo planning ||| Carriage of grain |||Risk of iron ores |||Self unloading bulk carriers |||Care of cargo & vessel |||Cargoes that may liquefy |||Suitability of ships |||Terminal guideline |||Hold cleaning |||Cargo cranes |||Ballast handling procedure |||Bulk carrier safety |||Fire fighting systems |||Bulk carrier General arrangement
Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
It is vital to reduce the likelihood of over-stressing the ship's structure and also complying with all essential safety measures for a safe passage at sea. Our detail pages contain various bulk carrier related topics that might be useful for people working on board and those who working ashore in the terminal. For any remarks please Contact us
Copyright © 2010 bulkcarrierguide.com All rights reserved.