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Procedures between the ship and the terminal prior to cargo loading/unloading in Bulk carriers
Fig: Self unloader preparation prior discharge
To maximise the unloading process loose cargoes are often loaded from a stockpile or stockyard into a hopper . This is useful when loading into rail cars and lorries because the ship can continue unloading even though there may not always be a lorry immediately available.
Some hoppers have an elevator for depositing the cargo into heaps on the quay side for later onward transportation. Likewise the same machinery can be used in reverse to load cargo into the ships hold. Besides loading the cargo, grabs can be used to even out the load. The ship was loaded using a conveyer which leaves heaps in the cargo. The tops of the heaps are removed and distributed around the hold to give an even top to the load.
Preparation from ship side
The master is responsible at all times for the safe loading and unloading of the ship, the details of which should be confirmed to the terminal representative in the form of a loading or unloading plan. In addition, the master should ensure following:
Appropriate ship specific checklist is completed in consultation with the terminal before loading or unloading is commenced;
The loading or unloading of cargo and the discharge or intake of ballast water is under the control of the ship's officer in charge;
The disposition of cargo and ballast water is monitored throughout the loading or unloading process to ensure that the ship's structure is not overstressed;
The terminal representative is made aware of the requirements for harmonization between deballasting and cargo loading rates for his ship;
Ballast water is discharged at rates which conform to the agreed loading plan and do not result in flooding of the quay or of adjacent craft;
Retain on board sufficient officers and crew to attend to the adjustment of mooring lines or for any normal or emergency situation, having regard to the need of the crew to have sufficient rest periods to avoid fatigue;
The loading or unloading plans have been passed to and agreed with the terminal representative;
The terminal representative is made aware of the cargo trimming requirements;
Appropriate information about the cargo to be loaded has been received to enable safe stowage and carriage to be achieved;
There is agreement between ship and shore as to the action to be taken in the event of rain, or other change in the weather, when the nature of the cargo would pose a hazard in the event of such a change; and
No hot work is carried out on board the ship while the ship is alongside the berth except with the permission of the terminal representative and in accordance with any requirements of the port administration.
Loading and discharging cargo from a self-unloader can be carried out within a completely enclosed system. This ensures a clean ship and a clean dock, no dust pollution around the harbour and reduced noise levels.
Advanced dust suppression equipment and fully enclosed or covered booms on many modern vessels further reduce the potential for dust or spillage. Noise generated by the ships self unloading machinery is controlled through the use of acoustic enclosures and sound barriers.
Terminal preparation prior loading /unloading
Responsibility of terminal representative for handling bulk cargo
Ship-terminal information exchange for handling solid bulk cargo
Required information from ship to terminal prior loading / unloading bulk cargo
Required information from terminal to ship prior loading / unloading bulk cargo
Suitability of Shore Terminals for handling bulk cargo
Preparation for ships carrying bulk cargo & standard loading condition
Checklist to Show stability, hull strength, draft and trim of the vessel
Our detail pages illustrated many safety aspects of Bulk carrier
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- Cargo information required by ship master prior handling bulk cargo
- Care of cargo during loading- Trimming pours
- Terminal information required by ships handling bulk cargo
- Checklist for confirming stabilty and hull stress prior loading
- Cargo loading agreement between ship and terminal
- Bulk carrier loading manual
- Handling of deballasting (ship duties) during high loading rate
- Cargo and ballast handling guide
- Responsibility of ship during cargo operation
- Shipboard hazards & bulk carriers safety guideline
- Asymmetric cargo and ballast distribution for bulk carriers
- Limitations on exceeding load lines
- Risk of deviation from the loading limitations
Cargo handling guidance for deck officers
Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
It is vital to reduce the likelihood of over-stressing the ship's structure and also complying with all essential safety measures for a safe passage at sea. Our detail pages contain various bulk carrier related topics that might be useful for people working on board and those who working ashore in the terminal. For any remarks please Contact us
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